Plus: understanding crypto taxes
Ric Edelman: It's Friday, March 3rd. Today we're going to be talking about crypto taxation. Yeah, you've got to pay taxes with your crypto. We'll explain how and why. And we also have this week's health and wellness segment by my wife, Jean Edelman.
But first, have you ever heard of an ordinal? It's the newest thing in crypto. Yeah. It's hard to keep up with this topic. I've been doing this for over a decade and there's something new cropping up all the time. Two years ago, you never heard of an NFT or the Metaverse or DAOs. Well, now we have Ordinals. Before I tell you what Ordinals are, I want to revisit NFTs for you because, well, you'll see why in a minute. An NFT is a non-fungible token. And to understand what a non-fungible token is, you first have to understand what a fungible token is. Fungible means identical. Interchangeable. Dollar bills are fungible. I can lend you a dollar. You don't have to give me back the same dollar Any dollar will do because they're all identical. They're fungible. Casino chips are fungible. Shares of stock are fungible, too. Bitcoin is fungible.
So what's a non-fungible token? Well, think of a painting by Picasso. That painting is unique. There's only one. No two are alike. It's non-fungible. My car is non-fungible. If I'd lend you my car, I want you to return my car. Not just any car. I don't even want another car of the same model, the same year - I want my car back. So that's what a non-fungible token is. It's a unique digital asset. One of a kind.
Well, what's the point of a non-fungible token? Well, like I said, non-fungible tokens, NFTs are digital assets. They are a digital representation of a real-world object. My house is a physical object, but I can take the deed and make a digital copy of it. That digital copy now represents legally my house. Since my house is unique, the digital deed is unique. My digital deed is a non-fungible token. And by the way, we call them tokens because tokens represent something. You know, a rose is a token of my love. A subway token is a permission to ride. In a penny arcade, the token gives you the right to play a game.
Well, these digital tokens, these NFTs, they're created using blockchain technology. Most of them are created on the Ethereum blockchain, and it's big business nowadays. Everybody's creating NFTs. Katy Perry. Rob Gronkowski. Floyd Mayweather. Porsche. Mattel. The New York Times. Maclaren. Jay-Z. The NBA, NFL, MLB. Gannett. Time. USA Today. The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. The list goes on and on. It's big business. Last year, OpenSea paid $1.1 billion in NFT royalties.
The NFT market is projected to hit $230 billion by the end of the decade. And that takes us to Ordinals. An Ordinal is essentially a non-fungible token. They were invented just a couple of months ago in December by Casey Rodemore. He's a software engineer. He created a way for NFTs to exist on the Bitcoin blockchain instead of the Ethereum blockchain, and he called his version of NFTs, Ordinals. I have no idea why. What Roger Moore did was he wrote an algorithm that creates a serial number for every Satoshi. A Satoshi is the smallest division of a bitcoin. $100 million Satoshis equals one bitcoin. Imagine having a penny in your pocket, and now you can inscribe data on that penny. You just converted a fungible token into a non-fungible token. And that's what Moore did. Ordinals started getting attention only in the last couple of weeks. So far, about 200,000 of them have been created or minted in crypto terms. The people that are creating these Ordinals, they're called mentors, and the mentors have been paying the Bitcoin miners to put their new Ordinals onto the Bitcoin blockchain.
Bottom line: for a long time, all you had was Coca Cola. Then Pepsi came along and together they built the massive soft drink industry, far bigger than either one of them alone could have done by themselves.
One plus one equals five. We've had NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain. Now suddenly we've got Ordinals on the Bitcoin blockchain. Just imagine what's going to happen now that we have the two biggest blockchains competing for non-fungible business. One plus one just might equal five. Are you sure you don't want to put any of your portfolio into digital assets?
You need to learn how all this stuff works. Read my number one best seller, The Truth About Crypto. And if you're a financial advisor, you need to complete my online self-study course and get your certificate in blockchain and digital assets. Demonstrate to your clients that you're staying cutting edge with the latest tech and asset class investing. And if you like what you're hearing, be sure to follow and subscribe to the show wherever you get your podcasts - Apple, Google, Spotify, even YouTube. Remember, if you're doing it on Apple, leave a review. I read them all and I want to make sure you never miss an episode of The Truth About Your Future. Follow and subscribe on your favorite podcast app. Do me a favor and tell your friends.
Exclusive interview with crypto tax expert René Chaze
Ric Edelman: We talk a lot about crypto on this program, and odds are increasingly good that you own crypto. It's becoming increasingly popular. More than 20% of us adults now own crypto. At the last count, 22%, a 10% increase over a year ago, despite the fact that there's been a huge decline in the price of bitcoin and other digital assets in 2022. And it's now getting to the point that because so many people own crypto that you're beginning to realize you have to report your transactions on your tax return. If you are engaging in crypto, just like stocks, just like real estate, just like bonds, it's a taxable scenario. So I'm willing to bet that most folks don't realize what the tax rules are regarding crypto, and that's what we're going to talk about right now. So I'm happy to bring onto the program René Chaze. René is an advisor to the company I created, DACFP, the Digital Assets Council of Financial Professionals. René was a partner at Ernst and Young for 20 years and he was my CFO at Edelman Financial for six years. He now runs my family office working with emerging companies and the digital assets blockchain, the technology fields. René and I have been in our circles together for pushing 30 years now, so René, good to have you on the show.
René Chaze: Thanks for having me. Good to be here today. Thanks.
Ric Edelman: And René hates to be buttoned as the tax guy, but, you know, when you're named CFO of the year twice and you come from Ernst and Young, you know, sorry, René, but you're the tax guy.
René Chaze: All right.
Ric Edelman: So one of the big misconceptions that I find in the world of crypto is that people says there aren't any regulations, that there are no rules regarding crypto, which is absurd. A lot of people say that the IRS hasn't said anything about crypto, and that's really absurd. I mean, clearly the IRS is paying a lot of attention to crypto. The very first question on the Form 1040 asks if you're doing crypto. Here's what they say: At any time during 2022, did you A) receive as a reward, award or payment for property of service or B) sell, exchange, gift or otherwise dispose of a digital asset or a financial interest in a digital asset? Well, that question seems pretty comprehensive. So clearly the IRS is paying attention to crypto and they put it at the top of the 1040 right after you provide your name and address, they ask you about crypto.
René Chaze: Yeah.
Ric Edelman: So talk about, René, the fact that the IRS is asking that question in such a comprehensive way, which by the way, they've updated, didn't they?
René Chaze: Yeah, and I think it's part of the entire IRS effort to ensure that they're capturing a number of transactions related to crypto. And as you mentioned, it's right on page one underneath your name and address. Now there's this big header on the left side that says digital asset. So last year and in prior years, the IRS used the terms virtual currency, and then in the instructions they talked about cryptocurrency and there was a lot of confusion. And so the IRS made this move to referring to digital assets. And Ric, I'm going to credit you for that because for years you've been telling people, stop calling it cryptocurrency, stop calling it currency of any sort. Call it what it is. It's a digital asset. So it's great that the IRS has finally listened to you and is calling it a digital asset.
Ric Edelman: Yes, I'm going to take full credit for this that everyone at the IRS has been dutifully listening to this podcast and finally following my footsteps. I will definitely take all the credit.
René Chaze: No doubt, no doubt.
Ric Edelman: Now that the IRS is clarifying what they're talking about, the real question that taxpayers have is, do I check the box?
René Chaze: Well, Ric, the instructions say that if you buy bitcoin with cash, you are not required to check the yes box.
Ric Edelman: It seems pretty simple. Now, what about the flip side? And if I sold it in 2022, would I have to check yes to this question?
René Chaze: Absolutely. If you dispose of it in any fashion, then yes, you are required to check the yes box.
Ric Edelman: See, IRS is saying we don't care how you got rid of it. If you got rid of it, we want to know. And one of the interesting words there is gift. If you give your bitcoin away - which people often do philanthropically, you know, they donate it, they give it away, or they might give it to kids, you need to tell the IRS you've done so.
René Chaze: Yeah. And you have to really think about what's the purpose here and what's the IRS trying to catch. Notice there's nothing in the question that said, did you own any during the year? You could own a ton of this stuff. You can own a ton of bitcoin and escape needing to answer yes to the question because you simply held it during the year. What they're really trying to do is understand, did you have something that created or caused a taxable event or something we really are interested in? And if you think about it, that's receiving something like a reward or an award which would be taxable, it's receiving crypto just like you would receive cash or any other asset as payment for service. That's a taxable event. You got compensation or you sold the asset which creates a potential taxable event, or you gifted the asset which might result in some gift tax or gift tax reporting or calculations related to your lifetime exclusion or your annual exclusion. Did you dispose of it in some other way? So if you think about all of the components of the question, here’s what the IRS is really trying to get at: was there a thing that occurred this year that we might otherwise want to know about? When you earn income from your employer, there's a W-2. When you sell a stock or security, there's a 1099-B. A lot of the transactions in the crypto space, whether it's on the acquirer side or on the sell side, don't have that same level of reporting. So even though the industry participants may not be reporting to you, the IRS still holds you accountable. And they're asking you this question to make sure it's in your consciousness about, Wow, did I have something related to crypto that I need to report this year?
Ric Edelman: And if it sounds a little weird that, gee, how come they don't want to know if I bought bitcoin? Well, think about it. They don't want to know if you bought stocks either. They only want to know because buying stocks is not a taxable event. It's selling the stock. It's giving away the stock. That's the taxable issue. So they're treating bitcoin and other digital assets the same way. They don't care if you buy it. They want to know if you dispose of it.
René Chaze: But Ric, your listeners and advisors who you coach a lot are going to want to know, and I was very careful in my response earlier, I said if I bought bitcoin for cash, I wouldn't worry about checking the box. But oftentimes what happens in the crypto world these days is people will exchange on some of these exchanges, one digital asset for another digital asset. So in your example, I may have acquired some bitcoin, but what if I traded or disposed of a different asset in exchange of getting that bitcoin? Well, my acquisition of the bitcoin, it may not be taxable, but guess what? That other asset, that Ether token or some other token that I provided was, as though I sold that token to have the cash or the currency to purchase the bitcoin. So inherent in that buying a bitcoin transaction could be the sale of another transaction in exchange for the bitcoin I purchased. And that would trigger the yes answer.
Ric Edelman: So it's just so funny how this happens because you're right. I think we all know that bitcoin is the number one digital asset. More people own bitcoin than any other digital asset. It's for most folks, their entree into the world of digital assets. So very commonly people open an account and they will fund that account with dollars. They'll transfer money from their bank into their PayPal account and they will use the cash in PayPal to buy bitcoin not reportable the IRS. But then they say, Gee, I'm really getting into this. This is pretty cool. I'd like to own more than just bitcoin. I think I'll buy some Ethereum and I'm going to use my bitcoin to buy it. What they don't realize is the IRS is saying you didn't use your bitcoin to buy Ethereum. You sold your bitcoin, created cash, used the cash to buy the Ethereum, and it's the selling of the bitcoin that triggers the yes answer on the tax return.
René Chaze: Absolutely right, Ric, You got it spot on.
Ric Edelman: And this is why it is so crazy complicated. And I guess we just have to shrug our shoulders. We all know how complicated taxes are anyway. Why would we be surprised that crypto taxes are complicated as well? So I just have to ask you this fundamental question, though. Why does the IRS care about any of this? I mean, the IRS isn't asking this kind of a question about whether or not I own baseball cards or rare stamps. A lot of people collect stamps or comic books. The IRS isn't doing all of this work with that stuff. Why do they care so much about my crypto?
René Chaze: Yeah, it's a good question. If I work at Home Depot and I asked to be paid in a box of hammers, well, that's not cash, but it still is compensation to me. What's different about the box of hammers from crypto is that crypto is so portable and it's freely transferable into cash. -unlike my box of hammers. Well, Home Depot would have to get a box of hammers and get it to me somehow. Crypto can be moved instantly and digitally. And that leads me to why the IRS cares. There's a ton of transactions that could occur using crypto that could otherwise escape taxation. The IRS wants to make sure that participants are paying attention. I truly believe the IRS realizes crypto will grow and expand in its utility, and I think the IRS is trying to get ahead of that to make sure that consumers know, even those that aren't engaging with crypto today, that when they engage with crypto, there will be a taxable event. So I think portability and utility of crypto is why the IRS is so much more focused on that than baseball cards or rare stamps that aren't used as frequently in commerce.
Ric Edelman: Yeah, I don't think one out of five Americans collects rare stamps, but we do have one out of five adults owning bitcoin and that number is only going to grow. So clearly, if I buy bitcoin and later sell it, the gain or loss is reported the same as if I bought and sold a stock. Not a big deal. Not really confusing at all. But there are elements of crypto that are truly unique to crypto. One example is something called staking. Another is airdrops. There's hard forks. All of these are new and different and unique to the world of crypto. Has the IRS put rules in place for the tax implications of any of this?
René Chaze: Yes, they have come out with guidance on things like forks and airdrops. And an airdrop is when you have a crypto wallet and the promoter of a particular crypto project simply drops into your wallet, a particular coin or token. That's no different than if you have a brokerage account and someone magically dropped a share of Microsoft in there. Existing tax law would tell you if you didn't buy anything and you didn't pay anything for something and it just shows up on your doorstep, it's generally taxable income in this case. So things like airdrops and forks, yeah, we have guidance on that. Things like staking, though, is not exactly clear and the IRS hasn't issued any guidance on staking.
Ric Edelman: So let's talk about staking because it's becoming increasingly popular. The whole premise of buying bitcoin or Ethereum or some other digital asset, you buy it because you believe the price is going to go up. That's like buying a stock. You buy a stock because you think the price is going to go up. But in the world of stocks, that's not the only way you make money. Many stocks also pay dividends and about half of the profits of the stock market since the 1920s, have come from dividends, not growth. So that's one of the reasons stocks are so popular. You get growth and dividends. But in the world of bitcoin, you only get growth. Bitcoin doesn't pay any dividends. Ether is another digital coin, the number two most popular, and it does offer you the opportunity to generate income. It's called staking. And we're not going to waste a whole lot of time here talking about how staking works. But the bottom line is when you buy Ethereum, you have the option to stake your Ethereum, which generates income for you. How does the IRS treat the income you earn from staking?
René Chaze: Yeah, they haven't published any guidance, but most of the practitioners in the tax community say, Hey, listen, that certainly feels like ordinary income. There is a kind of an esoteric argument that a number of taxpayers are pursuing that says, no, no, no, no, I shouldn't have to recognize income until I sell those coins that I got as a result of my staking. And they're using an analogy that's kind of like a farmer who has a tree. You know, if I have an apple tree and the apple tree creates 100 apples, I don't have taxable income when I pluck the apples off the tree. I have taxable income when I sell the apples. And so that's an analogy that that is being used. But almost every tax practitioner that I've talked with, articles you read, say that when you have a staking activity and you receive coins as compensation for staking, it's generally taxable at the moment that you receive the coins.
Ric Edelman: So again, we need to recognize that there is no special tax dodge, no tax avoidance that you can engage in to hide your profits in the world of crypto. You need to treat it the way you treat all of your other investments, recognizing that recordkeeping is required and reporting is required and the ultimate payment of profits are required. Now, if I were to say that about the stock market or the world of mutual funds and ETFs or real estate, the typical investor is going to respond to all of that (and that's why I have a financial and a tax advisor). But in the world of financial advisors, very few of them are providing any assistance to crypto investors as it stands right now. So how can investors who are engaging in crypto get help in dealing with their tax record keeping and tax reporting? I mean, after all, as you've noted with the world of staking, if I'm going to be getting these staking rewards, they come pretty frequently. I mean, you're talking about a huge amount of recordkeeping involved.
René Chaze: Yeah. And it's a great opportunity for financial advisors both on the investment management sort of financial planning side and CPAs who are talking with clients about their wealth and taxes. Crypto is a wonderful opportunity that allows financial advisors and CPA accountant types to engage in conversation with their clients. And the way I think of things, financial advisors are always looking for ways to talk with their clients, add value, strengthen the relationship, protect the relationship from flight. And so categorically, crypto is a great opportunity to at least talk with your clients. The areas that I think most financial advisors would be well suited to learn is helping clients plan for and report any crypto that they may have earned during the year. I would guess that a number of financial advisors haven't contemplated how easy it is for a client to open an account on Kraken or Coinbase. And clients are doing this very frequently. You mention how many Americans are engaged with crypto. It is unbelievably easy to open an account and start earning income, so financial advisors are well positioned to talk with their clients about their staking, their other activities. I can anticipate a number of financial advisors would say, Yeah, my clients are kind of older. They're not really engaged in all that. That may be true, but their kids are and their grandkids are.
And that's a great opportunity to talk with your clients about the tax consequences. And you might say tax is boring, but hey, 30 to 40% of your gains go out the door to the government. So helping clients think about the planning and reporting for dispositions, for gains and losses, short-term, long-term utilization of capital losses, thinking about utilizing the currently all the issues that currently exist with wash sale rules and how to maybe do some wonderful tax loss harvesting thinking about gifting. All of that is related to dispositions of crypto.
Another topic that I would suggest to advisors to talk with their clients about is planning for their estate and what to do upon death. And this is an area, Ric, I've heard you talk about this and you've written about it in your bestselling book. The notion of I'm in my 50s and I have crypto, but I could get hit by a bus tomorrow or have a heart attack. Does my wife know how to access my crypto? Does she know where it is? Certain states are enacting laws related to unclaimed property which has existed on the books for years, but they're there, including digital assets in the discussion about unclaimed property.
So if you have your bitcoin at a particular exchange and it's not claimed for five years or there's no activity, the state can claim it and say it's property of the state. So when you think about the transferability of crypto upon death, the accessibility of private keys - as an advisor, your advisor community has a great opportunity to talk with their clients and build into their estate planning, into the security of their financial assets, the location and the transfer of digital assets upon death. So I think those are three areas that advisors should really think about talking to their clients in the crypto area.
Ric Edelman: And considering the fact that so many already believe that digital assets belong in a diversified portfolio. One out of five Americans already are doing it in this way. And recognizing the incredible complexity and obligation of dealing with crypto taxation on your 1040, I think it's important for advisors to recognize that their clients need help in this area, and it's equally important for clients and investors to recognize that this isn't something you should tackle on your own. You're in over your head just as you are with the rest of your 1040. And this is why you need professional financial help and you should therefore feel free as a consumer to go to a financial advisor and say, Can you give me guidance on crypto taxation? You should fully expect your advisor to be able to say, yes, I'm familiar with it. I understand the rules of crypto regarding the IRS. I know what mining is and staking and airdrops and forks. I can tell you whether or not you need to report it and if so, a talented advisor would be able to direct you to a tax tracker service, which are online companies that handle the recordkeeping and in many cases the tax reporting as well. They fill out the form so that you don't have to worry about it. Your advisor should be able to do all of that. And if your advisor can't, that's a clue that you should go get a new, different advisor because you wouldn't hire an advisor who couldn't give you advice about the taxation of annuities or IRAs. There's not a lot of difference here.
And so increasingly advisors are recognizing that fact. And this is why it's a core part of our training at DACFP, the Digital Assets Council of Financial Professionals. We have the certificate in blockchain and digital Assets, an online 11 module self-study course for financial advisors and their firms, teaching them about this technology. With a two-hour module taught by René, who you've just been listening to for the past half hour on crypto taxation so that advisors can gain the knowledge they need to be able to provide their clients the advice that they need to handle this very fundamental issue of investment management. And so we encourage you as a consumer to ask your advisor if they are knowledgeable about crypto taxation. And we say to you financial advisors who are listening that if you aren't up to speed on crypto taxation, come visit us at DACFP.com so that you can get the education you need so that you are staying state of the art, cutting edge with the ability to advise your clients, the way your advisors, the way your clients expect and need you to do. So go to DACFP.com and learn about our certificate in blockchain and digital assets. René, everything we've talked about here has been, on the one hand - clarifying, on the other hand - confusing. But all of it...was that the federal level? We haven't even touched on the fact that we have 50 states plus, the District of Columbia. Do we have to pay any particular attention there, or do they just piggyback the 1040 or do we have other issues?
René Chaze: Every state has the power to provide whatever rules they want around income tax. Arizona, for example, has enacted a law that says Arizona taxpayers can exclude from their income, the value of virtual currency and non-fungible tokens received by an airdrop. Now, that's inconsistent with what happens at the federal level. So you're going to start to see states enact different rules to what's happening at the federal level. And it's important to note that everything we've talked about today has really just been about income tax. Don't forget, the states have the power to tax counties, school board districts, etc. municipal authorities. Income tax, property tax, sales and use tax, gross receipts. There's a ton of different flavors of taxes. So I think this multi-jurisdictional, potential money grab to tax crypto will be really interesting to watch unfold.
Ric Edelman: And it will be unfolding, in fact, over the next several years. No question about it. Death and taxes are unavoidable. We need to get our arms around it in the world of crypto. That's René Chaze. He is an advisor to DACFP and my colleague for the past couple of decades. Great to have you here, René. And in my book, The Truth About Crypto, I have a couple of chapters on crypto taxation. So if you want to learn more about this and get your arms around it, I encourage you to read my number one Amazon best seller, The Truth About Crypto. René Chaze, thanks very much for joining me on the show today.
René Chaze: Thanks, Ric.
How To Bring Balance Into Your Busy Life
Jean Edelman: Hi, I'm Jean Edelman. For decades, I've been a student of the healing arts, Reiki, traditional Chinese medicine, homeopathy, acupuncture, plant-based and macrobiotic cooking. Join me on this journey and hear my word of the week.
This week I want to talk about three glass jars. It is extremely difficult to see a higher learning when we're in the middle of a health scare. The stay in early January that I had at the hospital set me on such a journey to look for the greater learning in a pretty traumatic moment in my life. So what was the greater learning? To slow down, quit pushing through (this is what I learned from my dad's side of the family), and to nourish my soul. So what I want to share with you is something to help you visualize three glass jars.
The first jar is our physical body. The second jar is our mind and our mental body. And the third jar, I'm going to call it our soul body. In daily life, two of these jars are probably overflowing and ready to explode, and the third jar probably doesn't even exist for a lot of us. The physical jar; the physical body - this is our constant motion, our doing, our being, our busy, busy, busy. We're exhausted. We're committed. No time for ourselves. Our mental jar, our mind is overthinking, constantly thinking, stress, anger, frustration, loops of emotion. Our soul jar. This is the one where we get to connect to ourselves, our learning, our being. This jar we need to give a little more attention to so that all three jars are a little bit more in flow and alignment.
And so the action item for this week is our physical jar. When we see this jar overflowing or notice it's almost overflowing, we need to stop. Take account of where we are. Ask what is so important. Physically sit down. Get a glass of water. Take a breath. Stop physically moving around and just pause. Then maybe the jar won't fill up and explode on us.
Next, our mental jar, our mind. This is when we're overthinking, we're stressing. We're too stuck in the details. We're mired in the muck. This is a time for us to go outside. Get some fresh air. Go sign up for a yoga class where we are in movement and in breath and we are out of our minds and in our bodies.
And now our soul jar. This is where we take time for ourselves. This is where maybe we take time in the morning before we get out of bed. Where we stretch, we breathe. Maybe we sit down and we journal where we create our gratitude journals, where we say, “Hey, we're a really amazing human being and acknowledge ourselves for the beautiful soul we are.” And we all have an amazing purpose in life, no matter where we are and what we're doing or what we're going through. Whatever it is, we can fill this jar because we're just beautiful, beautiful human beings here.
And so when we've got the three jars kind of flowing and ebbing, when we're stopping to take a rest, when we're outside of nature and taking our classes, when we're thinking positively and nourishing ourselves, we've got more balance and flow in our life. It's all about our human journey. And these three jars can help us visualize how it can ebb and flow. Maybe just being aware of the three. Maybe when we wake up in the morning, they're empty and maybe just being aware during the day. Okay, well, let's stop doing the physical. Let's go take a yoga class and maybe let's go draw or do something fun that we really want to do. Having this visualization helps us take the moments that we need to have a great day.
And so Word of the Week is JAR.
J is for Join. We're meant to join the pieces of our physical, our mental, and our soul bodies. It may not seem that way, but one whole breath, one whole being, and a beautiful soul on this planet - that's what we are. And that's what having control and visualizing these three jars can help us with.
The A is to Align. When we're in alignment, there is ease, there's ease in our breath. There's ease in our day. There's ease in our moments. When we're out of alignment, that's when there's constantly struggle and frustration and anger and hardships. So when we can check in with ourselves and ask, “What do we need? Do we need some time off? Do we need a different job? What changes are needed? And do we have the courage to make them?”
And R is for Rally. When we come together for our personal greater good, our greater physical health, our greater mental health and our soul health, that is when we can have great impact. That is when we can have great changes because we're being the best version of ourselves.
So visualize these jars. Pay attention. The beginning of the day, they're empty. At the end of the day, how did we do? Do a little check at night. If they're overflowing, just adjust the next day. The beauty is that we can change. We can change and grow and be better each day. Have a wonderful week.